تأثير روش‏هاي خاك‎ورزي، مديريت بقاياي گياهي و كاربرد كود نيتروژن بر انتشار گاز دي‏اكسيد‏كربن از خاك تحت كشت ذرت (Zea mays L.)

آب و خاک  

دوره 29 - شماره 2

نوع مقاله: Original Article
چكيده: اين تحقيق با هدف ارزيابي اثر انواع شخم، مديريت بقاياي ذرت و سطوح كود نيتروژن بر ميزان انتشار گاز دي اكسيد كربن جهت كاهش اثرات منفي تغييرات اقليم انجام شد. بدين منظور، يك آزمايش دو ساله (۱۳۹۰ و ۱۳۹۱) در مزرعه تحقيقاتي دانشكده كشاورزي مشهد به‏صورت اسپليت پلات نواري بر پايه طرح بلوك‏هاي كامل تصادفي در ۳ تكرار اجرا شد. فاكتورهاي اصلي شامل انواع شخم (۱- شخم رايج و ۲- شخم حداقل) و مديريت بقاياي ذرت (۱- حفظ بقاياي گياهي محصول سال قبل و ۲- عدم وجود بقاياي گياهي) كه عمود بر هم اجرا شدند و فاكتور فرعي شامل سطوح مختلف كود اوره (صفر، ۱۵۰، ۳۰۰ و ۴۵۰ كيلوگرم در هكتار) كه در داخل شخم اسپليت گرديد، بودند. نتايج نشان داد كه ميزان انتشار دي‏اكسيد كربن براي سال ۱۳۹۰ و ۱۳۹۱ در شخم رايج حدود ۱۵ و ۱۰ درصد بيشتر از شخم حداقل بود. حفظ بقايا در سطح خاك منجر به افزايش معني‌دار انتشار دي‏اكسيد كربن نسبت به شرايط عدم وجود بقاياي گياهي در هر دو سال آزمايش شد. به‏طوري‏كه، ميزان انتشار در شرايط وجود بقاياي گياهي در سال اول و دوم به ترتيب حدود 4.36 و 5.37 برابر انتشار در عدم حضور بقاياي گياهي بود. با افزايش سطوح كود نيتروژن ميزان انتشار گاز دي‏اكسيد كربن افزايش يافت. نتايج نشان داد كه ميزان انتشار در سال دوم تحت تأثير كليه اثرات ساده و متقابل تيمارهاي مورد بررسي بيشتر از سال اول آزمايش بود. در بررسي انتشار روزانه دي‏اكسيد كربن، مشاهده شد كه ميزان انتشار در هر دو سال آزمايش بيشتر تحت تأثير بقاياي گياهي قرار گرفت تا نوع شخم و سطوح كود اوره. ميزان اين صفت تحت تأثير شخم رايج، وجود بقاياي ذرت و سطوح بالاي مصرف اوره بالاتر از شخم حداقل، عدم حضور بقايا و سطوح پايين كودي بود. نتايج رگرسيون خطي بين درجه حرارت هوا و ميانگين انتشار روزانه دي‏اكسيد كربن نشان داد كه همبستگي مثبت بين درجه حرارت هوا و انتشار دي‏اكسيد كربن وجود داشت.
Evaluation of Tillage, Residue Management and Nitrogen Fertilizer Effects on CO2 Emission in Maize (Zea Mays L.) Cultivation
Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Introduction: The latest report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) states that future emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) will continue to increase and cause climatic change (16). These conditions are also true for Iran. The three greenhouse gases associated with agriculture are carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O). The three GHGs associated with agriculture CO2, CH4, and N2O differ in their effectiveness in trapping heat and in their turnover rates in the atmosphere. This environmental change will have serious impacts on different growth and development processes of crops. Increasing temperature could affect physiological processes such as photosynthesis, respiration and partitioning of photoassimilates. Farmers are not able to change or manage the climatic conditions, but some factors such as soil, water, seed and agricultural practices can be managed to reduce the adverse impacts of climate change (32). Mitigation and adaptation are two known ways for reducing the negative impacts of climate change. Mitigation strategies are associated with decreasing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions through management practices such as reducing chemical fertilizer application, mechanization, increasing carbon storage in agroecosystems, planting biofuel crops and moving towards organic farming (42), etc.
Materials and Methods: This study was carried out at the experimental field of the Ferdowsi University of Mashhad in 2011 and was repeated in 2012. The Research Station (36°16´N, 59°36´E) is located at about 985 m a.s.l. Average temperature and precipitation rate of the research station in two years are shown in Figure. 1. The three-factor experiment was set up in a strip-split-plot arranged in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The experimental treatments were tillage systems (conventional and reduced tillage) and residual management (remaining and leaving of maize residual) assigned to main plots and different levels of N fertilizer (0, 150, 300 and 450 kg urea ha-1) was randomized as a subplot in tillage treatment. The seedbed preparation was made based on common practices at the location. Plot size under the trial was 4 m × 3 m so as to get 70 cm inter row spacing. Maize seeds (single-cross 704 cultivar) were hand sown in May for two years. The ideal density of the crops was considered as spacing 20 cm inter plant. As soon as the seeds were sown, irrigation continued every 10 days. No herbicides or chemical fertilizers were applied during the course of the trials and weeding was done manually when necessary. Measurement of CO2 emissions was performed by the closed chamber method. For this purpose, PVC plastic rings (20 cm in diameter and 30 cm height) were scattered on each of the plots. The chambers were placed in soil for two hours and the gathered air was collected by 10 ml vacuum syringe. Then, the samples were transferred to the laboratory and CO2 was measured using GC-mass.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that CO2 emissions for conventional tillage was about 15 and 10% higher than the reduced tillage in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The CO2 emissions can be taken as indicators of soil tillage effects on the soil ecosystem, because CO2 emissions are closely connected to the microbial turnover and the physical accessibility of organic matter to microbes. These parameters were more available in the conventional tillage than the reduced tillage. CO2 emissions were strongly higher in the remaining residual condition rather than leaving condition in two years. CO2 emissions in the remaining residual condition was about 4.36 and 5.37 times higher than that of the leaving residual condition in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The microbial respiration and humidity of soil in the remaining residual condition is higher than that of the leaving residual condition. CO2 emission was elevated with increasing the rate of N fertilizer. The N fertilizer can increase the microbial activity of the soil. Cover cropping and N fertilization can increase CO2 emissions in full and reduced tilled soils by increasing the amount of crop residue returned to the soil. The results showed that CO2 emissions in 2011 were higher than 2012 in all treatments. The residual treatment had more effect on daily CO2 emission in comparison with tillage and N fertilizer treatments in both years. The trait was higher under conventional tillage, residue remaining and higher N fertilizer levels compared to reduced tillage, residue leaving and lower N fertilizer application. Linear regression for air temperature and mean CO2 emission illustrated that there was a positive correlation between air temperature and CO2 emission.
Conclusion: In essence, the results showed that CO2 emissions for conventional tillage were higher than that of reduced tillage in two years. Remaining residual condition had strongly higher CO2 emission rather than leaving condition. CO2 emission was elevated with increasing the rate of N fertilizer.
قیمت : 20,000 ريال