تأثير قارچ آربسكولار ميكوريز (گلوموس موسيه) بر وزن خشك و غلظت عناصر نيتروژن، فسفر و پتاسيم شبدر برسيم تحت استرس كادميم

آب و خاک  

دوره 29 - شماره 2

نوع مقاله: Original Article
چكيده: به منظور بررسي تأثير قارچ آربسكولار ميكوريز بر وزن خشك و غلظت عناصر نيتروژن، فسفر و پتاسيم شبدر برسيم در يك خاك آلوده يه كادميم، يك آزمايش به‌صورت فاكتوريل در قالب طرح كاملاً تصادفي با سه تكرار اجرا گرديد. فاكتورهاي مورد بررسي شامل سطوح مختلف آلودگي خاك به كادميم (۰، ۵، ۱۰، ۲۰، ۴۰ و ۸۰ ميلي گرم كادميم در كيلو گرم خاك) و سطوح تلقيح با قارچ آربسكولار ميكوريز گونه گلوموس موسيه (با و بدون تلقيح با ميكوريز) بود. نتايج نشان داد كه تأثير قارچ آربسكولار ميكوريز بر تمامي صفت‌هاي اندازه‌گيري شده در سطح آماري يك درصد معني‌دار گرديد. با افزايش غلظت كادميم در خاك، وزن خشك ۳۷ درصد و ۳۹ درصد غلظت نيتروژن ۳۵ درصد و ۲۸ درصد، غلظت پتاسيم 27.9 درصد و ۳۷ درصد و غلظت فسفر ۳۷ درصد و ۳۹ درصد به ترتيب در ريشه و اندام‌هاي هوايي كاهش يافت. همچنين نتايج نشان داد كه قارچ آربسكولار ميكوريز، وزن خشك، غلظت نيتروژن، غلظت پتاسيم و غلظت فسفر را در ريشه و اندام‌هاي هوايي به ترتيب ۴۲ درصد و ۲۶ درصد، 40.3 درصد و ۳۰ درصد، ۶ درصد و 15.4 درصد، ۵۴ درصد و 91.2 درصد افزايش داد. اثر متقابل سطوح كادميم و ميكوريز بر وزن خشك اندام‌هاي هوايي، غلظت نيتروژن اندام هاي هوايي و ريشه و غلظت پتاسيم ريشه گياه در سطح يك درصد معني دار گرديد.
The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress
Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Introduction: Soil contaminations with heavy metals represent a potential risk to the biosphere and leads to increased concentration in ground and surface water. Therefore metals mobility in soil has been extensively studied in the last decades. Use of agrochemicals such as synthetic fertilizers and pesticides has resulted in soil and water pollution, and loss of biodiversity. Cadmium is a heavy metal with a strong effect on crop quality. Moreover, it is a very mobile element in the environment. Plants can easily uptake cadmium and transfer it to other organs. Experiments on the effects of cadmium on the contents of macro elements in plants are scarce and therefore the mechanism of its effect has not yet been fully explained. Contaminated soil can be remediated by chemical, physical or biological techniques. Mycorrhiza is the mutualistic symbiosis (non-pathogenic association) between soil-borne fungi with the roots of higher plants. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are obligate biotrophs, which can form mutualistic symbioses with the roots of around 80% of plant species. Arbuscular mycorrhiza have been observed to play a vital role in metal tolerance and accumulation. Many workers have reported enhancement of phosphate uptake and growth of leguminous plants by vesicular arbuscular mycorhizal fungi (AMF).
Materials and Methods: One study performed the factorial experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications in the greenhouse of Agriculture Faculty of Zanjan University. The examined factors include different levels of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation (Glomus mosseae) (with and without inoculation), and different levels of soil contamination by cadmium (0, 5, 10, 20, 40 and 80 ppm). In this study, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi Glomus mosseae species were used. These fungi were prepared by the Plant Protection Clinic in Iran – Hamedan. The soil was prepared of arable land of depth of 0-20 cm at the University of Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day), plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9) and MSTATC (version 2.10) software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01). With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01).
Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium reduced the concentration of nutrients in the plant; but mycorrhizal fungi increased nutrient concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in the plant. Previous studies have shown that external hyphae of mycorrhizal fungi are able to provide their symbiotic plant potassium, nitrogen and phosphorus. Ghazala reported that nutrient uptake of mycorrhizal plants was higher when compared with non-mycorrhizal. It seems that the ability of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in concentration of nutrients depends on fungal species, soil condition, and host plant.
قیمت : 20,000 ريال