بررسي ظرفيت نگه‌داشت آب مالچ‌هاي نيشكري براي تثبيت شن‌هاي روان اهواز

آب و خاک  

دوره 29 - شماره 5

نوع مقاله: Original Article
چكيده: هدف از پژوهش حاضر، بررسي اثر مالچ آلي بر ميزان نگه‌داشت آب شن هاي روان حميديه اهواز مي باشد. از جمله مواد آلي كه مي‌توان براي توليد مالچ آلي استفاده نمود، ويناس و فيلتر كيك (ضايعات نيشكر) مي‌باشند و در حال حاضر به عنوان آلاينده آب اهواز محسوب مي‌شوند. ويناس و فيلتركيك به همراه خاك رسي منطقه حميديه اهواز به عنوان مواد اوليه مالچ پاشي و شن روان به عنوان بستر در نظر گرفته شدند. سپس مخلوط اين مواد با مقداري مشخص آب به صورت آزمايش فاكتوريل در قالب طرح كاملا تصادفي در آزمايشگاه با استفاده از مالچ پاش بر روي بستر شن هاي روان پاشيده شد. با نمونه برداري از هر تيمار ظرفيت نگه داشت آب در لايه سطحي در مكش‌هاي ۱۰۰، ۳۳۳، ۱۰۰۰، ۵۰۰۰، ۱۰۰۰۰ و ۱۵۰۰۰ هكتو پاسكال با دستگاه صفحات فشاري اندازه گيري گرديد. همچنين با استفاده از دستگاه پره برشي ميزان مقاومت برشي خاك هر تيمار قرائت شد. نتايج نشان داد كه اختلاف معني داري (در سطح يك درصد) در ميزان نگه‌داشت آب لايه سطحي بين تيمارها در مكش‌هاي مختلف وجود داشت. ولي در همه مكش‌ها ميزان نگه‌داشت آب لايه سطحي تيمار ۷ (۲۵۰ گرم ويناس) تفاوت معني داري با شن بستر نداشت و با افزايش مقدار ويناس ميزان نگه‌داشت آب لايه سطحي كاهش و ميزان مقاومت خاك افزايش يافت. بنابراين ويناس دليل افزايش نگه‌داشت آب در لايه هاي زير سطحي و مقاومت بيشتر در برابر نيروهاي فرساينده به عنوان مالچ برتر براي تثبيت شن‌هاي روان اهواز توصيه گرديده است.
Investigation of Water Holding Capacity of Sugarcane Mulch for Sand Dune Stabilization in Ahvaz
Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Introduction: Wind erosion is one of the most serious problems in southwest Iran. Fine-grained structure of sand dunes with not enough strong composition and their low moisture retention property make them susceptible to wind erosion. They lack organic matter and are considered inherently of low fertility (Ahmadi, 2002). Studies have shown that non-erodible materials which include bentonite clay (Diouf et al., 1990), ureamelamine formaldehyde and urea–formaldehyde with 0.25% sodium chloride (Lahalih and Ahmed, 1998), acids, enzymes, lignosulfonates, polymers, tree resins (Santoni et al., 2001), waterborne polymer emulsion (AlKhanbashi and Abdalla, 2006), polyvinyl alcohol and a polyvinyl acetate emulsion (Newman et al., 2005; Han et al., 2007), ash and polyacrylamide (Yang and Zejun, 2012).have significant potential in reducing wind erosion The area under farming of sugarcane in Khuzestan, Iran, is more than 130,000, ha. Vinasse and Filter Kike are two organic ingredients of sugarcane residues which are generated as byproduct materials insugarcane processing. In recent years these residues have been released into the environment and cause it regarded as water pollutant. Over 800,000 m3 of Vinasse is annually stored in each agro-industry. Vinasse also is rich in K, Ca, and Mg with moderate amounts of P and N,and non toxic complexes or heavy metals. Filter Kike is another residue produced in huge amounts by the agro-industry that is composed of cellulosic substances, CaCO3, N, P, K, organic matter, and clay. Therefore, the objective of this research is to investigate the effect of sugarcane mulch on water holding capacity in soil. This study is performed to evaluate the feasibility of using sugarcane residues inproduce of ecofriendly mulches for environmental use. In order of achieving these goals, Vinase, Filter Cake, and clay soil from near the sand dunes were used as sugarcane mulches. Further comparison between traditional oil mulches and sugarcane mulches was also carried out.
Materials and Methods: The experiments were conducted in the soil laboratory of Khuzestan-Ramin University of Agricultural and Natural Resources. For this purpose, Vinasse and clay soil samples were used to make sugarcane mulches. Different quantities of Vinase, Filter Kike, and clay samples were mixed in water to select the best batch mix (by trial and error). A mulch sprayer was then used to spray the batch mixes on sand dune beds packed in trays 1054510cm. In addition, the same procedures were employed to choose an oil mulch treatment as control for comparison with sugarcane mulch treatments. Water holding capacity was measured in 100, 333, 1000, 5000, 10000, 15000 hPa suction by pressure plate and Macro elements ( N, P, K ) and microelements (Fe, Cu, Zn) were determined by conventional methods and atomic absorption in each treatment. Experiments were carried out using a factorial experiment with a completely random design in threereplicants.
Results and Discussion: The wide range of pH values obtained were dependent on the different batch mixes of Vinase, clay soil, and Filter Kike. Reaction (pH) of Vinase was lower (5.00) than those of Filter Kike (7.5) and soil (8.07). EC and SAR values of treatments were both affected by Vinase, soil, and Filter Kike. This could be due to the higher EC and the low level of SAR in Vinase in contrast to soil and Filter Kike. EC and SAR are two major chemical factors known to affect sand dune stabilization (Bresler, 1982). Based on Table 3, N, P, K, Fe, Zn, and Cu in sugarcane mulches varied from 0.15-0.66 (%), 10.82-28.46 (mg.Kg-1 ), 133.01-633.33 (meq.Li1 ), 15.22-36.76 (mg.Kg-1 ), 2.19-2.93 (mg.Kg-1 ), and 0.92-4.1 (mg.Kg-1 ), respectively. The results revealed that sugarcane mulches are rich in N, P, and K that are essential in soil fertility. The results determined that there was significant effect (p<0.01) on water holding capacity in different suctions. While this effect was not considerable for Mulch 7 (250 g Vinasse) treatment with sand bed because water repellency increased with increasing Vinasse. In addition, Mulch 7 (250 g Vinasse) has N, P, K, Fe and Cu content more than critical level. Therefore according to these results the use of Mulch 7 can be defined as a superior mulch in Ahvaz sand dune stabilization because of its higher resistance, water repellency and nutrient content.
Conclusion: Sugarcane mulches were shown to be effective in stabilizing sand dunes as compared to oil mulches. This makes them especially useful as an alternative mulch for sand dune stabilization in Khuzestan Province where the raw materials are inexpensively available. These properties primarily depended on mulch sustainability in the region. It is, therefore, concluded that the combined Filter Cake and Vinasse strongly influences to erode under environmental conditions.
قیمت : 20,000 ريال