توسعه شاخص فازي پايش كيفي منابع آب (FWQI) (مطالعه موردي دشت ساوه)

آب و خاک  

دوره 29 - شماره 5

نوع مقاله: Case report
چكيده: آگاهي از كيفيت آب هر منطقه در تصميم گيري هاي مديريتي به‌منظور استفاده بهينه از منابع آب ضروري است. يكي از روش هاي رايج در اظهارنظر در مورد كيفيت منابع آب، استفاده از شاخص هاي كيفيت منابع آب(WQIs) است. شاخص ها معمولاً داراي محدوديت هايي است از جمله‏ ي آن‌ها مي توان به‌ضرورت در دسترس بودن كليه پارامترهاي استفاده شده در توسعه هر شاخص اشاره كرد. همچنين برخورد قطعي با مسائل كيفيت آب نقطه‏ ضعف ديگري براي اين شاخص ها است. از اين‏رو براي حل اين دو محدوديت در مقاله حاضر با استفاده از سيستم استنتاج فازي (FIS) و بر اساس" استلزام ممداني" و با كاربرد داده هاي كيفي آبخوان دشت ساوه، اقدام به توسعه شاخص كيفيت آب فازي (FWQI) شده است. هفت شاخص از نوع FWQI با پارامترهاي كيفي مختلف توسعه داده شد. اين شاخص ها براي مشخص كردن كيفيت آب ۱۷ چاه از دشت ساوه به كار گرفته شدند. به‌منظور در دسترس بودن معياري براي قضاوت مقادير برآوردي آن‌ها با مقادير پايه و شناخته شده محاسبه شده بر اساس شاخص WQI مقايسه شدند. نتايج نشان داد كه در غياب برخي از پارامترها، شاخص هاي FWQI با دقت بالايي قادر به ارزيابي منابع آب زيرزميني هستند. همچنين مشخص شد كه اگر در ميان پارامترهاي ورودي، پارامتري كه داراي مقداري خارج از محدوده مطلوب خود باشد، حذف شود، در طبقه بندي كيفي آب ايجاد خطا خواهد نمود. بررسي پايش كيفي آب چاه ها نشان داد كه وضعيت آب آن‌ها از نظر شرب در شش چاه قابل قبول، در پنج چاه غيرقابل قبول و در شش چاه بسيار نامناسب است.
Development of a Fuzzy Water Quality Index (FWQI) – Case study: Saveh Plain
Article Type: Case report
Abstract: Introduction: Groundwater resources are the main source of fresh water in many parts of Iran. Groundwater resources are limited in quantity and recently due to increase of withdrawal, these resources are facing great stress. Considering groundwater resources scarcity, maintaining the quality of them are vital. Traditional methods to evaluate water quality insist on determining water quality parameter and comparison between them and available standards. The decisions in these methods rely on just specific parameters, in order to overcome this issue, water quality indices (WQIs) are developed. Water quality indexes include a range of water quality parameters and using mathematical operation represent an index to classify water quality. Applying the classic WQI will cause deterministic and inflexible classifications associated with uncertainties and inaccuracies in knowledge and data. To overcome this shortcoming, using the fuzzy logic in water resources problems under uncertainty is highly recommended. In this paper, two approaches are adopted to assess the water quality status of the groundwater resources of a case study. The first approach determined the classification of water samples, whilst the second one focused on uncertainty of classification analysis with the aid of fuzzy logic. In this regard, the paper emphasizes on possibility of water quality assessment by developing a fuzzy-based quality index even if required parameters are inadequate.
Materials and Methods: The case study is located in the northwest of Markazi province, Saveh Plain covers an area of 3245 km2 and lies between 34º45′-35º03′N latitude and 50º08′-50º50′E longitudes. The average height of the study area is 1108 meter above mean sea level. The average precipitation amount is 213 mm while the mean annual temperature is 18.2oC. To provide a composite influence from individual water quality parameters on total water quality, WQI is employed. In other words, WQI is a weighting average of multiple parameters. The present research used nine water quality parameters (Table 2). In this paper Fuzzy Water Quality Indices (FWQIs) have been developed, involving fuzzy inference system (FIS), based on Mamdani Implication. Firstly, five linguistic scales, namely: Excellent, Good, Poor, Very poor, and Uselessness were taken into account, and then, with respect to ‘If→then’ rules the FWQIs were developed. Later, the seven developed FIS-based indexes were compared with a deterministic water quality index. Indeed seven FWQIs based on different water quality available parameters have been developed. Then developed indices were used to evaluate the water quality of 17 wells of Saveh Plain, Iran.
Results and Discussion: The present study analysed groundwater quality status of 17 wells of Saveh Plain using FWQI and WQI. Based on the driven results from WQI and its developed fuzzy index, similar performance was observed in most of the cases. Both of them indicated that the water quality in six wells including NO.1, 2, 6, 12, 13, and 17 were suitable for drinking. Due to the fact that the values of both indexes were under 100, the mentioned wells could be considered as drinking water supplies. The indexes illustrated the very poor quality of wells NO.7, 9, 10, 11, 14, and 16. As a result, according to FWQI1 along with WQI, nearly 35% of wells have proper drinking water quality, while approximately 30% and 35% of them suffered from poor and very poor quality, respectively. The overall picture of water quality within the study area was not satisfying, hence, an accurate site selection for discovering water recourses with appropriate quality for drinking purpose must be responsible authorities’ priority. Analysis of FWQI2, FWQI3 and FWQI4 revealed that elimination of the parameters slightly changed the result of FWQI2; however, FWQI3 and FWQI4 did not vary considerably. Thus, Cl influenced the water quality slightly, but Ca and K did not affect the water quality of the plain. The results showed that inexistence of one of the mentioned parameters would not affect the computational process adversely. A glance at FWQI5, FWQI6 and FWQI7 revealed the improper performance of FWQI5 to show wells’ water quality status. Throughout the FWQI5 evaluation process, all the wells’ water quality stood in Excellent category. Due to the considerable values of TDS in the Plain, elimination of this parameter in FWQI5 caused inappropriate evaluation. Hence, whenever a case study deals with a high value of a specific quality parameter, elimination of that parameter would negatively demote validation of the analysis. Figures (3)-(6) represented the results of WQI along with seven FWQIs for 17 utilized wells’ water quality assessment in the study area during the proposed periods.
Conclusion: Throughout the present study, the capability of seven FIS-based indexing procedures in modelling the water quality analysis of 17 wells of Save Plain was discussed. The proposed FWQIs were developed on the basis of Mamdani approach by applying triangular and trapezoidal membership functions to determine the groundwater quality of the case study according to the nine parameters. The results revealed that FWQI1-4 outperformed others. On the other hand, FWQI5-7 which eliminated three out of the nine parameters, did not made a valid contribution to the computational context. This might be related to omitting the effective water quality parameters from the inputs of the model. The results also illustrated that, only six out of 17 wells of the region could be considered as suitable sources for the drinking purpose. The water quality status in five wells was not satisfying, and six wells were plagued by very poor quality of water
قیمت : 20,000 ريال