تأثير EDTA و اسيد سولفوريك بر استخراج سرب از خاك آلوده توسط گياه تربچه

آب و خاک  

دوره 30 - شماره 1

نوع مقاله: Original Article
چكيده: اصلاح زمين هاي آلوده به فلزات سنگين جهت جلوگيري از ورود آن ها به چرخه غذايي انسان ضروري به نظر مي رسد. گياه پالايي فناوريي مبتني بر استفاده از گياهان براي پالايش آلودگي از محيط‌زيست است كه روشي موثر، ارزان قيمت و سازگار با محيط زيست مي باشد. هدف اين مطالعه بررسي پتانسيل گياه تربچه براي پاكسازي فلز سنگين سرب از خاك آلوده و تأثير سطوح مختلف سرب و تشديد كننده هاي جذب بر رشد و نمو و غلظت اين فلز در گياه تربچه مي باشد. بدين منظور يك آزمايش فاكتوريل در قالب طرح كاملاً تصادفي با ۷ سطح عنصر سرب (۰، ۲۰۰، ۴۰۰، ۶۰۰، ۸۰۰، ۱۰۰۰ و ۱۲۰۰ ميلي‌گرم در كيلوگرم خاك)، ۳ سطح اسيد سولفوريك (۰، ۷۵۰ و ۱۵۰۰ ميلي‌گرم در كيلوگرم خاك) و ۳ سطح0EDTA و 10  و ۲۰ ميلي‌گرم در كيلوگرم خاك با ۳ تكرار در گلخانه گروه خاكشناسي اجرا شد. نتايج نشان داد كه تأثير سطوح مختلف سرب و نوع و مقدار افزودني هاي مختلف بر غلظت سرب ، وزن خشك غده و غلظت ساير عناصر در گياه تربچه معني‌دار بود و با افزايش سطوح سرب در خاك، غلظت آن در بخش هوايي و زيرزميني گياه تربچه افزايش ولي وزن خشك بخش هوايي و زيرزميني گياه كاهش يافت. كاربرد افزودني هاي مختلف نيز منجر به افزايش غلظت سرب در بخش هوايي و زيرزميني گياه گرديد. كاربرد اصلاح كننده ي EDTA غلظت سرب در بخش هوايي گياه تربچه را بيش از اسيد سولفوريك افزايش داد ولي توانايي سطح پايين افزودني اسيدسولفوريك در جذب سرب بيش از EDTA بود. همچنين يك اثر آنتاگونيستي بين جذب فسفر و سرب توسط گياه تربچه مشاهده شد.
The Effects of EDTA and H2SO4 on Phyto-extraction of Pb from contaminated Soils by Radish
Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Introduction: Soil contamination by heavy metals is one of the most important environmental concerns in many parts of the world. The remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals is necessary to prevent the entry of these metals into the human food chain. Phyto-extraction is an effective, cheap and environmental friendly method which uses plants for cleaning contaminated soils. The plants are used for phytoremediation should have high potential for heavy metals uptake and produce enormous amount of biomass. A major problem facing phyto-extraction method is the immobility of heavy metals in soils. Chemical phyto-extraction is a method in which different acids and chelating substances are used to enhance the mobility of heavy metals in soil and their uptake by plants. The aims of this study were: (a) to determine the potential of radish to extract Pb from contaminated soils and (b) to assess the effects of different soil amendment (EDTA and H2SO4) to enhance plant uptake of the heavy metal and (c) to study the effects of different levels of soil Pb on radish growth and Pb concentrations of above and below ground parts of this plant.
Materials and Methods: Soil samples were air dried and passed through a 2 mm sieve and analysed for some physico-chemical properties and then artificially contaminated with seven levels of lead (0, 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 mg/kg) using Pb(NO3)2 salt and then planted radish. During the growth period of radish and after the initiation of root growth, the plants were treated with three levels of sulfuric acid (0, 750 and 1500 mg/kg) or three levels of EDTA (0, 10 and 20 mg/kg) through irrigation water. At the end of growth period, the above and below ground parts of the plants were harvested, washed, dried and digested using a mixture of HNO3, HCl, and H2O2. The concentrations of Pb, N, P and K in plant extracts were measured. Statistical analysis of data was performed using MSTATC software and comparison of means was carried out using duncan's multiple range test.
Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of the type and rate of soil amendment and Pb levels of polluted soils were significant on dry weight and Pb concentrations of above and below ground parts of radish (p< 0.01). The dry weights of above and below ground parts of radish decreased as the Pb levels of polluted soils increased. By increasing the soil pollution level (1200 mg Pb/kg soil), the total dry weight of plant decreased by %47.3 which was probably due to phytotoxicity of lead and deficiency of several essential nutrients such as phosphorus. When the Pb levels of the polluted soils increased up to 400 mg/kg soil, the concentrations of Pb in above and below ground parts of the plant increased. But when the Pb levels of the polluted soils were higher than 400 mg/kg soil, the Pb concentration in above ground part of the plant decreased but in below ground part of the plant significantly increased. The decrease in Pb concentration in above ground part of radish was probably due to formation of insoluble lead complexes in soil. the use of soil amendments increased the concentrations of Pb in above and below ground parts of radish. The Application of EDTA increased the concentration of Pb in aerial part of radish more than the application of H2SO4. Also, the application of EDTA and H2SO4at low concentrations increased dry weight of plant since, the availability of micro- and macro elements enhanced and plant uptake of nutrients increased. But at the high concentrations of these amendments the increased availability of lead caused the reduced plant growth due to phytotoxicity. But the ability of the low level of sulfuric acid to absorb lead was more than EDTA. An antagonistic effect between phosphorus and lead uptake was also observed.
Conclusion: The results of the experiment showed that the Radish plant had the ability to absorb and accumulate the high concentration of lead in its tissues and so can be used for the phytoremediation of leadcontaminated soils. The EDTA application had higher potential for enhancing lead mobility and phytoavailability than H2SO4, But the ability of the low level of sulfuric acid to absorb lead was more than EDTA. The rate of amendment also had a significant effect on phyto-extraction process and the process was adversely affected by high concentrations of the amendments.
قیمت : 20,000 ريال