خصوصيات فيزيكوشيميايي، ميكرومورفولوژيكي و كاني‌شناسي رسي خاك‌هاي منطقه بردسير متأثر از سازندهاي زمين‌شناسي، ژئومورفولوژي و اقليم

آب و خاک  

دوره 30 - شماره 5

نوع مقاله: Original Article
چكيده: تشكيل و تكامل خاك‌ها در مناطق خشك و نيمه خشك شديداً تحت تأثير سازندهاي زمين شناسي و ژئومورفولوژي منطقه مي باشد. نهشته هاي جوان كواترنري، مارن هاي نئوژن و كرتاسه از مهم‌ترين و گسترده ترين سازندهاي زمين شناسي در منطقه بردسير مي باشند. هدف از اين مطالعه بررسي تأثير سازندهاي زمين شناسي و همچنين اقليم و سطوح ژئومورفولوژي بر ويژگي هاي فيزيكوشيميايي، كاني-شناسي و ميكرومورفولوژي خاك هاي منطقه مي باشد. در اين مطالعه ۱۱ خاكرخ متأثر از اين سازندها و در رژيم هاي رطوبتي اريديك، مرز اريديك- زريك و زريك و بر روي سطوح ژئومورفيك پديمنت پوشيده و سنگي، دشت هاي سيلابي و دامنه اي، سطوح حدواسط، باهادا و تراس ها حفر شد. حداكثر مقدار گچ در خاك هاي واقع بر سازندهاي كواترنري و مارن هاي كرتاسه و حداكثر مقدار كربنات كلسيم در سازندهاي نئوژن مشاهده شد. خاك هاي متكامل مانند آلفي سول ها در رژيم رطوبتي زريك و سطوح ژئومورفولوژي دشت دامنه اي و خاك-هاي انتي سول در رژيم رطوبتي اريديك و سطوح ژئومورفولوژي پديمنت سنگي تشكيل شده اند. كاني هاي رسي مشاهده شده در اين منطقه شامل اسمكتيت، ورمي‌كوليت، ايليت، كائولينيت و كلريت مي باشد كه با حركت از رژيم رطوبتي اريديك به زريك نسبت اسمكتيت به ايليت افزايش يافت. مطالعات ميكرومورفولوژيكي نيز نشان داد با حركت از رژيم رطوبتي اريديك به زريك از بلورهاي گچ كاسته شده و يا اثري از آن ها ديده نمي‌شود و بالعكس بر ضخامت پوشش هاي رس و بلورهاي كلسيت افزوده شد. همچنين اين مطالعات نشان داد عوارض خاك ساخت گچي عمده عوارض مشاهده شده در سازندهاي كرتاسه و انواع عوارض خاك ساخت آهكي عمده عوارض مشاهده شده در سازندهاي نئوژن مي باشد.
Physicochemical Properties, Micromorphology and Clay Mineralogy of Soils Affected by Geological Formations, Geomorphology and Climate
Article Type: Original Article
Abstract: Introduction: Soil genesis and development in arid and semi-arid areas are strongly affected by geological formations and geomorphic surfaces. Various morphological, physical, and geochemical soil properties at different geomorphic positions are usually attributed to different soil forming factors including parent material and climate. Due to variations in climate, geological formations (Quaternary, Neogene and Cretaceous) and geomorphology, the aim of the present research was the study of genesis, development, clay mineralogy, and micromorphology of soils affected by climate, geology and geomorphology in Bardsir area, Kerman Province.
Materials and Methods: The study area, 25000 ha, starts from Bardsir and extends to Khanesorkh elevations close to Sirjan city. The climate of the area is warm and semi-arid with mean annual temperature and precipitation of 14.9 °C and 199 mm, respectively. Soil moisture and temperature regimes of the area are aridic and mesic due to 1:2500000 map, provided by Soil and Water Research Institute. Moving to west and southwest, soil moisture regime of the area changes to xeric with increasing elevation. Using topography and geology maps (1:100000) together with Google Earth images, geomorphic surfaces and geologic formations of the area were investigated. Mantled pediment (pedons 1, 3, 7, and 8), rock pediment (pedon 2), semi-stable alluvial plain (pedon 6), unstable alluvial plain (pedon 5), piedmont plain (pedons 9 and 11), intermediate surface of alluvial plain and pediment (pedon 4), and old river terrace (pedon 10) are among geomorphic surfaces investigated in the area. Mantled pediment is composed of young Quaternary sediments and Cretaceous marls. Rock pediments are mainly formed by Cretaceous marls. Quaternary formations are dominant in alluvial plains. Alluvial terraces and intermediate surface of alluvial plain and pediment are dominated by Neogene conglomerates. Siltstone, sandstone, and Neogene marls together with Neogene conglomerates are among dominant geological formations of piedmont plain. Eleven pedons affected by young Quaternary sediments, Neogene and Cretaceous marls in aridic, aridic border to xeric, and xeric moisture regimes on above-mentioned geomorphic surfaces were described and sampled using Natural Resources Conservation Service (2012) guideline. Physicochemical properties, clay mineralogy, and micromorphology of soil samples investigated and soils were classified by Soil Taxonomy (2014) and WRB (2015) systems.
Results and Discussion: Calcic, gypsic, argillic, and cambic diagnostic horizons investigated after field and laboratory studies. Typic Calcigypsids, Lithic Torriorthents, Typic Haplogypsids, Typic Haplocalcids, Typic Torrifluvents, Sodic Haplocambids, Typic Calciargids, and Xeric Haplocalcids subgroups were found using Soil Taxonomy (2014) system. Gypsisols, Calcisols, Luvisols, Cambisols, and Regosols reference soil groups identified by WRB (2015) classification system. Developed Alfisols, formed on piedmont plain geomorphic surface in xeric moisture regime. On the other hand, Entisols formed on rock pediments with aridic moisture regime. Soils in aridic moisture regimes were little developed with gypsic horizon, and where calcic horizon was formed, it was near the surface. Moving to the west with increasing humidity, gypsum was leached from the pedon and clay illuviation caused argillic horizon to be formed. Formation of Btk horizon in pedon 9 was attributed to a more paleoclimate. The maximum gypsum content of 44.7 % (gypsiferous soils) was found in soils affected by Quaternary formations and Cretaceous marls, but the maximum calcium carbonate (44 %, calcareous soils) was investigated in soils formed on Neogene conglomerate formations. Moreover, the maximum sodium adsorption ratio (SAR) content (29.2 (mmol(±) L-1) 0.5) was determined for soils on unstable surface of alluvial plain. Smectite, vermiculite, illite, kaolinite, and chlorite clay minerals were investigated and smectite to illite ratio increased moving from aridic to xeric moisture regimes that prove the pedogenic source of smectite from weathering of illite. Coating and infilling of calcium carbonate, lenticular and interlocked plates and infillings of gypsum, and clay coatings were observed during micromorphological investigations. Micromorphological observations also showed that gypsum crystals decreased and calcite crystals and thickness of clay coatings increased from aridic to xeric moisture regimes. The minimum amount of gypsum crystals was found in Neogene formations. The results also showed that gypsum pedofeatures are dominant in Cretaceous formations, but calcium carbonate pedofeatures are the main features of Neogene formations. Due to presence of animal voids (channel, regular and star-shaped vughs, chamber, and vesicles), spongy microstructure was formed in agricultural lands.
Conclusion: Results of the research showed the important role of parent material, climate, and geomorphic surface on genesis and development of soils in Bardsir area.
قیمت : 20,000 ريال